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Just one more time I want to thank Avendo, come Vance, un progenitore diretto in Sherlock Holmes. Ellery Queen focalizza le sue indagini sul ragionamento logico deduttivo che porta a livelli eccelsi, lasciando il lavoro sporco, quello di fare le indagini materiali alla squadra coordinata dal padre, l'ispettore della polizia di New York Richard Queen.

Scritto per partecipare ad un concorso, che poi vinsero, il romanzo fu scritto da due cugini ventiquattrenni Manfred B.

Richard ed Ellery rappresentano i due aspetti dell'investigazione, la raccolta delle prove e l'elaborazione di queste attraverso un percorso logico e psicologico. Fedele al mio motto, giocare franco con il lettore, vi ho dato le carte che ho anch'io in mano. Tutto quello che so io, lo sapete anche voi. Per capire le ragioni di questa predilezione e per definire la cronologia della produzione queeniana penso sia utile dare la parola a Francis M.

Un cappello e un paio di scarpe non si trovano nel luogo in cui dovrebbero essere. Nello scrivere questa serie di gialli i cugini Lee e Dannay si dedicarono anche alla creazione di un nuovo detective l'anziano attore Drudy Lane firmandosi con lo pseudonimo di Barnaby Ross.

I due funzionari chiedono l'aiuto di Drudy Lane per scoprire il misterioso omicidio di un agente di borsa ucciso da una palla di sughero piena di aghi intinti nella nicotina pura. Sto parlando naturalmente del classico artificio Queeniano del Messaggio in Punto di Morte.

In un'autointervista Nevins Jr domanda: I romanzi di questa seconda fase dell'evoluzione di Ellery Queen sono caratterizzati dall'influenza delle riviste femminili alle quali i due cugini vendettero alcuni lavori e soprattutto dall'esperienza cinematografica di Dannay e Lee, che lavorarono a Hollywood come sceneggiatori per le maggiori compagnie.

In questo periodo Dannay e Lee, ormai all'apice del successo, furono impegnati, oltre che nella sceneggiatura di film, anche nella creazione di seguitissimi originali radiodrammi che in seguito fornirono lo scheletro per gli sceneggiati televisivi, trasmessi anche in Italia, che ebbero come protagonista Jim Hutton nei panni di Ellery Queen.

I romanzi di questo periodo di transizione, in ordine cronologico sono: Nel poi Frederic Dannay ebbe un incidente automobilistico che stava per costargli la vita e inoltre i due cugini dedicarono le loro energie in un progetto ambizioso e molto impegnativo, la creazione della migliore biblioteca mondiale di racconti polizieschi che pose le basi di years' Entertainment e successivamente dell'Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine.

Ellie Harroway Replicato il: Alcuni giorni fa su "Repubblica" Massimo Carlotto ha presentato il suo ultimo romanzo giallo "Respiro corto":. Poi un altro ciak: Infine quattro giovani brillanti laureati usano le loro sofisticate conoscenze di economia per rubare il mondo ai padri.

Come un film da leggere. Partiamo dai luoghi, sempre decisivi nei suoi libri: La gente viene uccisa in strada ogni giorno e nessuno se ne occupa. Penso che a lui, come l'ho conosciuto, avrebbe fatto piacere questa mia scelta".

Poi ho girato per le strade, per i locali: Sono andato anche a Ciudad del Este, dove si sono saldati gli interessi del narcotraffico e del terrorismo di Al Qaeda: Qui ho visto le macchinette mangiasoldi di cui parlo nel libro e che danno un senso tangibile, fortissimo dell'enorme flusso di denaro di cui dispongono queste organizzazioni ".

L'inizio ricorda alcuni classici americani, alla Don Winslow o alla Elmore Leonard: Per questo mi serviva un affresco corale, complesso come lo scenario da raccontare e capire".

Figli del Cartello della droga messicano, figli delle Triadi cinesi: Lo scontro tra i boss all'antica e quelli che hanno sostituito i kalashnikov con i computer? Ho parlato a lungo con uno di questi ragazzi, un cinese che studiava economia e lui era molto critico verso la tradizione da cui proveniva, addirittura non si percepiva 'violento o criminale'. Agiscono e si muovono come se fossero multinazionali. Ma tutti raccontati senza giudizi. Da anni ormai animo questi personaggi: Nel corso del tempo mi sono stupito della reazione dei lettori a questo o a quel personaggio: Devo pagare i debiti: Devo comprare l'auto nuova: Una volta ti dovevi nascondere, adesso troviamo intercettazioni telefoniche dove le mogli fanno i complimenti al marito corrotto e insieme ai figli fanno la lista dei beni di lusso che vogliono.

Con i poveri tra i poveri ostaggio delle mafie. Non si parla del fenomeno dell'immigrazione in genere e delle sue dinamiche complesse su cui la politica deve lavorare, ma dei migranti usati come truppe, come carne da macello dalle organizzazioni criminali. L'ho visto nel Nordest con l'arrivo degli albanesi prima, poi degli uomini della ex Jugoslavia e infine con rumeni e bulgari. Il suo romanzo non ha un happy end. Penso di essere una discreta conoscitrice di gialli, ma mi hai saputo regalare tanti spunti per nuove letture appassionanti: Nel gennaio ad una giovane coppia benestante capita un incidente che accelera il parto della donna.

La donna muore ma nascono due bambini, uno dei quali viene disconosciuto dal padre moribondo e abbandonato alle cure del dottore che l'ha fatto nascere e che lo adotta.

Venticinque anni dopo il figlio riconosciuto erede organizza una festa per dare una cornice fastosa sia alla presa di possesso del testamento e sia per sposare la sua promessa sposa. In quanto a me, non solo posso ma , spesso e volentieri, credo all'improbabile. Gli apocrifi veri e propri invece sono: How Goes The Murder?

Con la morte di Manfred Lee avvenuta nel si chiuse definitivamente la lunga vita di Ellery Queen cominciata nel quando due giovani di New York si misero a scrivere un romanzo poliziesco per vincere i dollari messi in palio dalla rivista Mclure's e dalla casa editrice Stokes.

Dopo tanti romanzi e racconti apocrifi che narrano l'epopea di Sherlock Holmes, ora giunge il primo seguito autorizzato dagli eredi di Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Ci ho messo tre mesi, quando per scrivere un romanzo in genere ho bisogno di un anno. Quando ha incontrato Sherlock Holmes per la prima volta? Una trovata irresistibile, che permette al lettore un' identificazione totale nelle storie che legge. All' epoca la condizione dell' infanzia era terribile.

Bambini poveri, privi di ogni cosa, genitori, istruzione, casa. Quindi ho pensato che avrei potuto aggiungere questo aspetto. Sono uno scrittore del XXI secolo e uno scrittore per bambini.

In genere se un personaggio di romanzo dice "sono un giornalista" sono portato a credergli. Nel giallo invece devo dubitare, controllare, andare aventi e indietro nelle pagine per verificare.

Una casa isolata dove avviene un rapimento che poi diventa un omicidio, un cane che abbaia, un ispettore scaltro e sagace che segue le piste visibili e segrete, un ambiente familiare che nasconde un assassino. Nella villa del funzionario governativo Samuel Kent posta poco fuori la cittadina di Road, nel Somerset, il 29 giugno scomparve misteriosamente il piccolo Saville di soli 3 anni, figlio della sua seconda moglie, che dormiva nella stanza assieme alla bambinaia.

Alcuni anni dopo, convertita al cattolicesimo Costance confessa parzialmente e con reticenza la sua colpa e viene arrestata nuovamente e condannata e essere poi liberata diversi anni dopo e finire la sua vita centenaria, nel in Australia.

In origine erano pastori e guerrieri, in continua lotta con i Pueblos di cui saccheggiavano i villaggi. Pubblicati originariamente solo nei gialli Mondadori, ultimamente alcuni gialli di Hillerman sono stati stampati anche da Piemme. Domenica Repubblica ha presentato "Il metodo del coccodrillo" di Maurizio De Giovanni con un intervista all'autore: Ricciardi va in pausa, entra Lojacono.

Anche se in fondo io credo di scrivere sempre allo stesso modo. Ho cominciato a fare il narratore solo cinque anni fa, a 48 anni: L' esperienza di buon lettore come primo bagaglio del romanziere? Nel mio scaffale, oltre a tutti i giallisti italiani e insieme al Conte di Montecristo che mi rileggo ogni cinque anni, ci sono Simenon e Ed McBain. Lei come lo ha fatto? Sembra strano pure a me, ma incontro per strada delle signore che mi chiedono in continuazione nuove puntate di quel personaggio.

Con un Ricciardi all' anno sarebbe facile andare avanti per sempre. Il teatro giusto per la messa in scena di due solitudini, quella dell' investigatore ma anche quella dell' assassino.

Al principio avevo addirittura pensato a capitoli alternati solo con le loro voci. Un piccolo omaggio a McBain? Sono contento che l' ha notato.

Coi 55 romanzi di quella serie ci ho passato la giovinezza. Westlake, prolifico giallista creatore del personaggio di John Dortmunder, sfigato ladro a cui ne capitano sempre di ogni colore.

Scrittore molto prolifico, Westlake scrisse numerosi altri gialli con sotto lo pseudonimo di Richard Stark, che hanno come protagonista Parker, un duro, un autentico lupo solitario, nella migliore tradizione dell'hard boiled novel. Forse nessuno scrittore come James Ellroy ha sentito sulla sua carne i morsi feroci dei delitti che avrebbe poi descritto in tanti suoi libri. In questo libro Ellroy mette a frutto e porta a compimento tutti i suoi tentativi di ricreare la vita di quegli anni tumultuosi e violenti della Hollywoodland del dopoguerra solo dopo, nel perse il suffisso land, diventando la scintillante Hollywood mecca del cinema.

Nel suo ultimo libro "Prestiti scaduti" il commissario Kostas Charitos indaga su raccapriccianti delitti che hanno come movente e come sfondo la drammmatica crisi economica che scuote la Grecia. I romanzi di Markaris hanno come comun denominatore una serrata critica al mondo del giornalismo e all'ambiente affaristico, famelici complici che hanno creato i presupposti per il fallimento dell'economia greca.

Il 14 maggio ha iniziato le trasmissioni una televisione monotematica dedicata al giallo che naturalmente si chiama Giallo http: Tra tante repliche spicca una vera e propria perla, la serie completa degli episodi di "Ellery Queen" girati a partire dal e trasmessi in Italiaper la prima volta nel Questi sono gli episodi che costituiscono la serie: Solitamente lo scrittore di romanzi gialli frequenta il delitto esclusivamente nella sua fantasia e lo concepisce come punto d'origine di una trama che porta alla scoperta rapida oppure lenta e faticosa dell'assassino.

Abbastanza stranamente il passato di Anne Perry fu per tanto tempo nascosto alla sempre crescente schiera di affezionati lettori. Dopo un lungo periodo trascorso in giro per il mondo, la scrittrice raggiunge un vasto successo internazionale con un romanzo poliziesco ambientato in epoca vittoriana. Questi sono i romanzi di Anne Perry che hanno come protagonista Thomas Pitt: Come Thomas Pitt anche Monk nasce di umili origini, figlio di un pescatore ma riesce a salire la scala sociale diventando poliziotto per lottare contro la sopraffazione e l'ingiustizia.

Questi sono i romanzi della serie Monk: Fanucci Editore, Vintage Oltre alle due serie principali Anne Perry ha da poco iniziato un nuovo filone ambientato durante la Prima Guerra Mondiale, costituito da: A partire dal maggiore esponente del genere Isaac Asimov, diversi autori furono attratti da entrambi i generi letterari.

Isaac Asimov, nato in Russi nel , fu il maestro incontrastato della fantascienza mondiale portata da lui a livelli filosofici e letterari di prim'ordine. Pur ingessati dallo schema rigido della narrazione questi racconti sono molto godibili per la fantasia e l'immaginazione di Asimov che spiazza e sorprende ogni volta.

Le raccolte dei racconti dei Vedovi Neri sono: La trama sembra incredibile ma il principale di Bill Tracy, il commediografo ispirato, viene assassinato proprio da un babbo natale che si fa vedere platelmente nelle strade della Grande Mela.

Poco dopo un'altra delle sue bizzarre idee viene messa in opera proprio nel palazzo dove abita e Bill deve improvvisarsi investigatore per salvare la pelle. Cain e Raymond Chandler. Wells, Carolina del Nord. Nel rituale giro di perlustrazione per individuare eventuali sospetti il poliziotto di ronda scopre nella sala d'aspetto della stazione un negro che detiene nel portafogli una grossa somma di denaro.

Durante la ferma militare si arruola nei Marines e viene spedito in Vietnam dove diventa un eroe. In un barcone lungo il Tamigi viene trovato il cadavere di un misterioso italiano che durante il secondo conflitto mondiale era sommergibilista impegnato nella guerra missilistica.

Mentre le prove contro il docente si accumulano e ormai le porte del carcere si stanno per aprire per lui, un clamoroso colpo di scena capovolge la vicenda e porta ad un sorprendente finale. Questi sono i romanzi della serie Paul Temple pubblicati in Italia: Nato a Wolverhampton nel e morto a Seattle nel Dibdin ha scritto diversi gialli con Aurelio Zen: Da Chandler alla P. Ho fatto la stessa operazione con Robert Browning, il famoso poeta inglese, ambientando la storia a Firenze nel Solo che in Italia tutte le brutture sono in superficie, nel senso che la gente ne parla.

Un altro successo di Dibdin, maestro di scrittura a un tempo evocativa e solidamente documentata. Una trama complessa e appassionante. Van Dusen, Ph D. Questi autori tentano di liberarsi delle regole del giallo all'inglese che ritengono troppo scarno e molto simile ad un gioco intellettuale e cercano di avvicinarsi al romanzo puro, senza aggettivi.

Nel l'autore ha ordinato la serie secondo questa sequenza: Il lettore ha seguito un indagine mettendosi nei panni dell'investigatore. Con gli occhi, il cuore, le viscere del criminale. In questo libro compare per la prima volta il raffinato ispettore Wenceslas Vorobeitchik che, dopo un breve periodo nella polizia ufficiale, diventa investigatore privato.

Non cercava neanche di scoprire un indizio propriamente detto, ma piuttosto di impregnarsi dell'atmosfera. Gli ho dato anche i piaceri della pipa, ovviamente. Aggiungo che a Maigret ho dato un'altra regola: Il programma che Duhamel propone ai suoi lettori non lascia dubbi: Il detective simpatico non sempre risolve il mistero. Contemporaneamente ai primi libri autobiografici, Le Breton comincia a scrivere anche romanzi di malavita, direttamente in argot, su consiglio di un giornalista di Paris-Soir, Marcel Sauvage.

Un altro portabandiera del Polar fu Jean-Patrick Manchette, autore di alcuni notevoli gialli tra il e il , anno della sua morte. I romanzi che hanno Adamsberg come protagonista sono: Scorre la Senna Coule la Seine Sotto i venti di Nettuno Sous les vents de Neptune Un luogo incerto Un lieu incertain E' stata questa routine a fare emergere i fatti salienti di queste morti terribili nate in un ambiente malsano costituito da violenze, ricatti, satanismo e intimidazioni ma non ha consentito, anche per forti ostacoli interni alla Questura, di salire al livello superiore di questa turpe associazione a delinquere.

Altri protagonisti di questo vero e proprio giallo infinito hanno fissato con l'inchiostro le loro ipotesi, inchieste e anche i loro depistaggi. Di solito un giallista diventa noto e apprezzato quando ha alle sue spalle diversi romanzi che gli consentono di farsi un nome e avere schiere di appassionati lettori. Miracoli incombono ed esplodono: Un fantasma volante scende apparentemente in picchiata e va all'attacco. Non angeli ma demoni e stregoni sembrano danzare sulla punta di quest'ago Vivere e sperimentare qualcosa equivale a trasporre il suo impatto diretto in molte forme indirette di consapevolezza.

Abbiamo offerto ai giovani una giungla d'asfalto rauca e stridula al cui confronto qualsiasi giungla tropicale era quieta e inoffensiva come una conigliera. Dashiell Hammett fu una figura centrale della cultura statunitense tra le due guerre.

Hammett da principio, e fin quasi alla fine, scrisse per le persone che prendevano la vita di petto, aggressivamente. Queste persone non avevano paura dei lati neri dell'esistenza; erano vecchie conoscenze per loro.

La violenza non li sgomentava, era ordinaria amministrazione, nel loro quartiere. Mise sulla carta i suoi personaggi com'erano e li fece parlare e pensare nella lingua che si usa di solito per questi scopi. Hammett, diventato scrittore si rimette nuovamente a caccia di delinquenti per trovare l'assassino di un vecchio amico.

Non poteva esserci un migliore modo di celebrare questo autore che supera ogni confine di genere. Assieme a Dashiell Hammett Raymond Chandler ha creato l'archetipo di investigatore privato tutto cuore e pistola che ha fatto scuola sino ai giorni nostri con gli epigoni Milodragovitch di James Crumley e Elvis Cole di Robert Crais.

Nato a Chicago nel Chandler visse per diverso tempo in Inghilterra, tanto da avere il passaporto britannico che mantenne sino al , tre anni prima della morte. In questo racconto compare un investigatore che ricorda molto Marlowe ma che si chiama Mallory. Portavo un completo azzurro polvere, con cravatta e fazzolettino blu scuro, scarpe nere e calze nere di lana, con un disegno a orologi blu scuro. Ero ordinato, pulito, ben raso e sobrio e non me ne importava che la gente se ne accorgesse.

Sembravo il figurino dell'investigatore privato elegante. Andavo a far visita a quattro milioni di dollari. Un uomo completo, un uomo comune, eppure un uomo come se ne incontrano pochi. Deve esserlo senza pensarci e certamente senza mai parlare troppo. Parker, creatore del detective Spenser. Il romanzo giallo deve essere motivato in maniera credibile sia come situazione originale, sia come conclusione. Il romanzo poliziesco deve essere realistico per quanto riguarda personaggi, ambiente e atmosfera.

Deve trattare di persone vere in un mondo vero. Il romanzo poliziesco non deve cercare di fare tutto in una volta: Lascia un senso di irritazione.

Il romanzo giallo deve essere ragionevolmente onesto con il lettore. E sempre senza fiori: In ogni caso, ha sempre l'inferno attorno, o nella testa, ineludibile e incandescente. E dove va a finire il suspense se poi si sa che il protagonista sopravvive? Ogni tanto, nei miei romanzi, faccio morire il protagonista, in modo che il mio lettore non sappia come va a finire la vicenda.

Nella storia dell'hard boiled, accanto ai nomi di Dashiell Hammett e di Raymond Chandler si staglia la figura di Ross Macdonald, l'unico dei tre grandi di questo sottogenere ad essere nato in California, l'ambiente elettivo della scuola americana dei duri.

Come disse lo stesso Macdonald in un'intervista: Io tendo a servirmi della formula poliziesca per scrivere dei romanzi sulla vita americana. Ma erano membri della razza umana. Un eroe di Hollywood in abiti sportivi. Vi proponete di pulire le stalle di Augia con una mano sola? E la cosa non vi riguarda. Vi riguarda invece Isobel Graff. Questi sono i suoi romanzi in ordine cronologico: Il passato si sconta sempre, collana I Mastini, Polillo, Nato nel a Whitton, Lovesey ha insegnato in vari college letteratura inglese dal al A questo libro fanno seguito , The Detective Wore Silk Drawers , Abracadaver , La vacanza del cappellaio matto Mad Hatter's Holiday , pubblicato da Sonzogno nel , ristampato nel nella collana Speciali del Giallo Mondadori con il numero E anche in questo caso Diamond applica i suoi metodi, nel tentativo di ricostruire le ultime ore di vita della donna.

E mentre cerca di orientarsi tra ragazzini ribelli, orsacchiotti fabbricati a Taiwan, Mercedes nere e l'ombra incombente di Jane Austen, si aliena la collaborazione dei suoi superiori e degli indiziati. L'epopea di Diamond continua poi con: Altri romanzi di Lovesey senza protagonista fisso sono: Un giallo in cui si sprecano tanti riferimenti ai grandi maestri del genere da John Dickson Carr a Umberto Eco.

Nessun testimone, nessun indizio valido su cui lavorare: E quelle lettere continuano ad arrivare Con l'aiuto di un ispettore di Scotland Yard e di un'attraente psicologa, lo scozzese ricostruisce un'ambigua immagine dell'assassino: Ma, in fondo, per Rebus non fa una grande differenza: Ma tre omicidi, in rapida successione, sconvolgono i giorni della vigilia. E' possibile che i tre casi siano collegati?

Solitario e caparbio, l'ispettore riannoda i fili sottili di un intrigo complesso e insidioso ritrovandosi ancora di fronte il boss della malavita di Edimburgo. L'ultima corsa per Woodstock La prima indagine del famoso detective burbero e misantropo protagonista dei romanzi di Colin Dexter: Uno scrittore di timbro classico, da paragonare a Ruth Rendell e P. Si sono presi subito, quando Morse ha chiesto al subalterno: Ora, a distanza di due anni, una lettera ne smentisce l'ipotesi della morte e solo il giorno dopo il collega che seguiva l'indagine muore in un incidente automobilistico.

Per cui, quando gli viene assegnata l'inchiesta sulla scomparsa di Valerie Taylor, la sua mente irrequieta non riesce ad evitare di ripensare alla morte dell'investigatore che se ne occupava, l'ispettore capo Ainley.

Il caso di Valerie, studentessa non ancora diciottenne scomparsa nel tragitto casa-scuola, era stato riaperto dopo due anni e tre mesi. Era infatti arrivata una lettera, a quanto pare di suo pugno, che smentiva l'ipotesi della morte: L'ispettore deceduto non aveva mai chiuso veramente il caso e lo seguiva nel tempo libero.

La breve missiva era giunta esattamente il giorno prima che Ainley morisse in un incidente automobilistico. Le inchieste dell'ispettore Morse appartengono al poliziesco della migliore tradizione inglese: Colin Dexter vi aggiunge il talento letterario di arricchire il ritmo della storia con le situazioni particolari dei molti personaggi; una ragnatela di segreti e bugie che si distende sul filone principale dell'inchiesta in una stretta che ne accentua la tensione.

Un giorno Nicholas viene ritrovato cadavere nel suo appartamento da scapolo. Accanto una bottiglia dello sherry preferito.

La causa della morte appare semplice: Si mescolano motivi di carriera, passioni sessuali, intrighi economici, coinvolgimenti di finanziatori esteri, personaggi dalla vita privata impenetrabile. Un classico del giallo deduttivo, un rinnovato, elegante, esempio del poliziesco di tradizione inglese.

La coppia procede con un metodo che si direbbe falsificatorio: Dalla stanza scompare una borsa che conteneva un antico gioiello che Laura doveva donare a Theodore Kemp, curatore dell'Asholean Museum. Ma l'ispettore Morse ha qualche dubbio e i suoi sospetti vengono confermati dalla morte violenta di Kemp.

Chiaramente i fatti sono connessi e le indagini vengono ristrette al gruppo di turisti. Anche il marito di Laura ha grossi problemi, soprattutto di ordine economico. E a mano a mano che emergono tanti nuovi particolari, il faro del sospetto si sposta alternativamente su ciascun componente del gruppo. Giallo sottile, complesso, inglesissimo, dall'atmosfera avvolgente. Un ispettore molto simenoniano, superbo in questa sua nuova avventura e soprattutto un finale veramente a sorpresa.

Di sicuro Dexter non sfigura nella lunga storia della Detection Story inglese. La particolare inchiesta di Ricciardi, che si carica di particolare empatia e di sentita condivisione del dolore degli uomini, ci pone un interrogativo: Nello splendido saggio "La civilizzazione video-cristiana" il suo allievo Derrick de Kerckhove parla del suo mentore scrivendo: Chesterton, un mistico pratico", apparso nella "Dalhousie Review" nel Vi cita una frase di un racconto di Chesterton applicandola all'autore, ma potrebbe benissimo, leggendola ora, descrivere il proprio itinerario: Sia il detective che lo psicoanalista sono figure fondamentali di un secolo, l'Ottocento e di una corrente culturale, il Positivismo che ebbero come stella polare il raziocino, l'adorazione per la logica e l'esaltazione della ricerca scientifica.

Riguardo a Edgar Allan Poe, nel suo primo capolavoro giallo "Gli assassinii della via Morgue" Auguste Dupin primo investigatore della storia del Giallo, passeggia con il narratore ed ad un certo punto dopo diversi minuti di silenzio parla seguendo esattamente i pensieri dell'amico decifrando ogni suo sguardo e ogni sua smorfia, delineando la traiettoria delle sue riflessioni:.

Gli anelli principali di questa catena si saldano in questa successione:. Mi riferisco a quel verso che dice:. Ecco qui invece un esempio del ragionamento di Sigmund Freud sulla dimenticanza di un nome che ricalca alla perfezione il flusso logico illustrato dal Cavaliere Auguste Dupin:.

Da "Psicopatologia della vita quotidiana" http: E durante questi intervalli si notava maggiormente il nervosismo del pubblico. Quando il Gatto uccideva, la gente provava per alcuni giorni una specie di senso di sollievo venato di isterismo, ognuno pensava di essersela cavata ancora una volta. Ma la paura non era scomparsa: Ma su questo punto la psicologia moderna sarebbe certamente dalla parte di Morelli: Io credo che il suo metodo sia strettamente apparentato con la tecnica della psicoanalisi medica.

Abbiamo a che fare, quindi, con un elemento che ha contribuito direttamente alla cristallizzazione della psicoanalisi, e non come nel caso della pagina sul sogno di J. Della singolare convergenza tra i procedimenti di Holmes e quelli di Freud ha parlato dal canto suo S. Ma a un collega T. Come si spiega questa triplice analogia? Freud era un medico; Morelli si era laureato in medicina; Conan Doyle aveva fatto il medico prima di dedicarsi alla letteratura.

Ma non si tratta semplicemente di coincidenze biografiche. Nel corso di inseguimenti innumerevoli ha imparato a ricostruire le forme e i movimenti di prede invisibili da orme nel fango, rami spezzati, pallottole di sterco, ciuffi di pe1i, piume impigliate, odori stagnanti. Ha imparato a fiutare, registrare, interpretare e classificare tracce infinitesimali come fili di bava. Generazioni e generazioni di cacciatori hanno arricchito e trasmesso questo patrimonio conoscitivo.

Senza esitare glielo descrivono: Allora vengono accusati di furto e sottoposti a giudizio. I rapporti tra la polizia e l'enciclopedico detective erano del tutto irrealistici, i dettagli di medicina e tecnica legale inaccurati se non del tutto omessi.

Si evitava la violenza, talvolta non c'era il minimo spargimento di sangue, e il cattivo riceveva immancabilmente la giusta punizione senza troppi riguardi per le finezze psicologiche. Gli anni Trenta erano quasi immuni da violenza domestica e sebbene ci fossero zone dei centri urbani pericolose come ai giorni nostri, le immagini della disgregazione sociale non entravano quotidianamente nel salotto di casa portate dalla televisione. Le detective story degli anni trenta portano vivacemente alla luce i decenni tra le due guerre.

Indubbiamente non viene mai in mente un solo romanzo poliziesco di quel periodo in cui un domestico o un esponente della classe operaia sia l'assassino o rivesta un ruolo di qualche importanza per la vicenda. E' quasi come se la classe lavoratrice fosse presente per fornire al detective i soliti indizi utili, o spinti comici, e talvolta venir sacrificata come vittima aggiuntiva, ma raramente come vittima principale.

Il fatto che i corpi vengano scoperti da Miss Wharton e Darren aumenta il raccapriccio e la continua ripetizione della parola sangue serve ad evidenziare questo rosso dilagante che pervade la mente e la retina di Miss Wharton.

Nata nel P. I suoi romanzi della serie dell'ispettore Dalgliesh sono: La scrittrice che contende a P. Una donna prevedibile e ordinaria ha trovato una morte passionale e violenta, senza motivo, senza alcun indizio. Forse per i colleghi era stato un caso qualunque, ma per lui aveva avuto una grande importanza: Nessun dubbio, tutti ne erano certi.

Charlie Hatton, il migliore amico dello sposo e suo testimone di nozze, ha guidato per undici ore consecutive pur di non mancare alla festa di addio al celibato. La prima vittima, una ragazza, aveva un morso sul collo. Qualcuno aveva notato una figura che fuggiva nel buio, ma non aveva saputo dire neppure se si trattasse di un uomo o una donna.

Ma miss Chawcher e Mix hanno anche diverse cose in comune: Poi il sogno tornava a visitarla: Qualcosa di bianco, appena sommerso, si avvicinava a lei, e sua madre le gridava senza un motivo apparente: Nove anni dopo, Ismay vive ancora con la sorella Heather, nella stessa casa di Clapham.

Accanto alle due protagoniste, tra le strade e i parchi di una Londra accuratamente descritta, si muove una galleria variegata di personaggi che intrecciano complicati rapporti con le due sorelle: Leo Bruce, la faccia ironica del giallo inglese Tra i numerosi autori del giallo inglese una menzione particolare va dedicata a Rupert Croft-Crooke meglio noto come Leo Bruce.

Lord Simon Plimsoll, Monsieur Amer Picon, e Monsignor Smith, che richiamano alla mente Lord Peter Wimsey, Hercule Poirot e Padre Brown, si mettono subito al lavoro ed elaborano tre diverse teorie, ognuna perfettamente coerente con i ragionamenti logici dei celebri modelli e ognuna perfettamente sbagliata. I romanzi con Beef protagonisti sono: A Story of India scritto con Sarah Hobson, postumo Dopo le sue avventure nella Polizia Beef diventa investigatore privato e si mette in diretta concorrenza con i migliori detective che percorrono le nebbiose periferie inglesi.

Questo suo livello culturale trapela anche nei suoi gialli, ricchi di citazioni, giochi di parole e suggestioni letterarie derivate anche dal fatto che fu per tanti anni titolare della rubrica di critica della narrativa poliziesca per il Sunday Times.

Con pochi indizi e molta fantasia appura che il negozio fantasma, il cadavere e il movente sono reali. Anzi, aveva ogni motivo per non farlo. Un altro successo di Dibdin, maestro di scrittura ad un tempo evocativa e solidamente documentata. Perfino la lingua appare energica e viva. A quell'epoca si fumava sempre.

Non esistevano i telefonini; erano le cabine telefoniche a contare. Si andava nei grill a pranzare, nessuno aveva dei mini-registratori in tasca e di computer s'era a malapena sentito parlare. Le grandi ondate di immigrati non erano ancora iniziate. Arrivavano operai in alcune delle nostre grandi industrie ma le ondate di rifugiati non esistevano. E tutti mostravano il passaporto anche se dovevano recarsi soltanto in Norvegia o in Danimarca.

Ora rileggo il romanzo su Roseanna in un giorno di dicembre, quarant'anni dopo la sua uscita. Molte cose naturalmente le ho dimenticate. Ma la costruzione del romanzo poggia su solide fondamenta.

E' ben studiato, ben strutturato. Questi sono i romanzi che costituiscono la serie con Martin Beck:. Roseanna Roseanna, trad. Annie Raft ha deciso di trasferirsi con la figlia in quel luogo lontano e solitario, dove l'aspetta una nuova vita insieme al suo amante, Dan.

Ma il giorno dell'arrivo nel pieno dell'estate nordica, quando una luce livida aleggia su ogni cosa le riserva un crudele benvenuto: Nord della Svezia, sta per iniziare l'annuale caccia all'alce. Un pulmino sfreccia in mezzo al bosco con a bordo sei uomini. Hanno tutti bevuto troppo e alla stazione li aspetta un amico. I sei amici, terrorizzati, decidono di non denunciare l'accaduto.

Ma Hillevi decide di non arrendersi ed inizia ad ambientarsi in questa terra brutale e affascinante. Come nei gialli di Martin Beck, le vicende personali dell'investigatore e le sue indagini poliziesche si intersecano per darci un ritratto a tutto tondo di un ambiente e di un mondo che viene raffigurato nella sua interezza, rendendoci partecipi sino in fondo dei chiaroscuri della vita svedese.

In questa raccolta figurano, tra gli altri, anche contributi di Dorothy L. Inizia male la giornata per Janek Mitter, con quel mal di testa lancinante. Eppure tutto lo accusa e a nulla vale la linea difensiva: E dopo che Mitter viene brutalmente pugnalato in cella, il commissario e la sua affiatata squadra scavano nel passato di Eva. Un tranquillo mattino di agosto un duplice omicida esce di prigione. Sono dodici anni che non mette piede fuori di quelle mura.

Prende la sua valigia e si incammina. Un piovoso giorno di aprile, durante una gita scolastica, una bambina rinviene il corpo di un uomo, privo di testa, mani e piedi.

Che cosa collega i due fatti? Dalle prime indagini emerge che si tratta del cadavere di Leopold Verhaven, ex stella dell'atletica leggera, caduto in disgrazia in seguito a uno scandalo sul doping e rilasciato otto mesi prima, dopo aver scontato una condanna per l'omicidio di un'ex fidanzata. Le indagini fanno emergere che i due uomini, pochi giorni prima di morire, avevano ricevuto misteriose telefonate, dove al silenzio seguiva una musica anni Sessanta.

La caccia al colpevole diventa estenuante: Burbero e solitario, il vecchio segugio medita la pensione. E una vacanza fuori programma. Ma qualcosa di irresistibile e di oscuro continua, nonostante tutto, ad attrarlo. Una donna misteriosa denuncia la sparizione di una ragazzina dalla colonia estiva di Oscar Jellinek, discusso pastore alla guida della setta della Vita Pura.

Il commissario si rifugia nella musica e negli scacchi, illusioni di un ordine ideale ma fittizio. Il caldo opprime ormai da giorni la cittadina di Maardam. Dal caos iniziale emerge a poco a poco una logica ferrea quanto brutale, un disegno fatto di squallore e irrimediabile debolezza umana.

Dopo pochi giorni, un'altra bomba fa saltare un impianto sportivo, seminando il terrore. La polizia parla di atto terroristico, ma dalle pagine dellaStampa della Sera, Annika Bengtzon conduce la sua personale indagine e scava nel mondo del comitato olimpico e della sua direttrice, donna potente e famosa, ma con molti lati oscuri nella vita privata.

Con questo primo caso che ha reso famosa Annika Bengtzon, Liza Marklund ha scritto uno dei romanzi svedesi di maggior successo di tutti i tempi, un thriller emozionante con un'eroina vivace e coraggiosa, che combina suspense e critica sociale nella migliore tradizione scandinava. Ma quando arriva, viene a sapere che qualcuno lo ha ucciso.

Mancano poche settimane a Natale e al municipio di Stoccolma si festeggiano i premi Nobel. Costretta al silenzio stampa, Annika decide di seguire comunque le indagini e di scavare nel torbido mondo della ricerca scientifica.

La sua inchiesta la porta sulle tracce di un misterioso testamento lasciato da Alfred Nobel. In una notte di giugno, qualcuno uccide il commissario di polizia David Lindholm nel suo letto: E davvero David Lindholm era un poliziotto esemplare come tutti sostengono?

Un pomeriggio, nei pressi di una scuola materna in un sobborgo della capitale, sotto un mucchio di neve viene ritrovato il corpo di una donna.

Si tratta della quarta giovane madre che cade per mano di un assassino, pugnalata alle spalle. Intanto, Thomas e l'intera delegazione di cui fa parte vengono rapiti al confine tra Kenya e Somalia: Per Annika, assorbita dalle indagini sul presunto serial killer, comincia l'incubo delle trattative.

Altro che la cenere di Holmes! Ma scienziati ed esperti di tecnologie ridono molto meno per trovate presentate come vere e serie, da parte di autori mal documentati. Ci sono autori particolarmente preoccupati che quanto inventano sia accettabile.

Ma a che serve? Come gli spettatori fermano per strada i celebri attori dei medical drama come E. La lingua batte sempre dove il dente duole. Il mondo ha deciso di fare a meno dei correttori di bozze ma il fact checking diventa una nevrosi, ciclica e infinita, con fughe di metacontrolli, check to check.

In compenso, si chiede anche alla letteratura di non mescolare i brevetti degni di Microsoft da quelli degni di Archimede Pitagorico. Bollino o non bollino, sembra ancora consigliabile la tolleranza.

Semplicemente, come ha detto Searle, John Searle, "Statuto logico della finzione narrativa", in vs , Numero speciale su "Semiotica testuale: Noi accettiamo il patto finzionale e facciamo finta che quello che egli racconta sia veramente avvenuto. Avendo avuto l'esperienza di aver scritto due romanzi che hanno raggiunto alcuni milioni di lettori, mi sono reso conto di uno straordinario fenomeno. Debbo dire che, per scrivere quel capitolo, per varie notti avevo fatto lo stesso percorso, con un registratore in mano, per annotare quel che vedevo e le mie impressioni.

Anzi, siccome ho un programma per computer capace di disegnarmi il cielo a qualsiasi ora di qualsiasi anno, a qualsiasi latitudine e longitudine, mi ero persino preoccupato di sapere se quella notte c'era la luna, e in quale posizione la si poteva vedere in ore diverse.

Ma quando racconto mi piace avere davanti agli occhi gli spazi di cui racconto: Dopo che avevo pubblicato il romanzo ho ricevuto una lettera di un signore che evidentemente era andato alla Bibliotheque Nationale a leggersi tutti i giornali del 24 giugno Il lettore mi chiedeva come avesse fatto Casaubon a non vederlo. Tuttavia quel lettore - anche se blandamente paranoico - non aveva tutti i torti.

Io lo avevo indotto a credere che la mia storia si svolgesse nella vera Parigi, e avevo persino specificato in quale giorno. Aveva diritto di andare a cercare un incendio che a Parigi quella notte c'era stato, ma nel mio romanzo non c'era?

Conosce a fondo caratteristiche e applicazioni della belladonna, dell'oppio e dei veleni in generale. Non sa nulla di giardinaggio e di orticoltura. Dopo una passeggiata, mi ha mostrato delle macchie sui suoi calzoni indicando, in base a colore e consistenza, in qual parte di Londra aveva raccolto il fango dell'una o dell'altra macchia. A quanto pare, conosce i dettagli di tutti gli orrori perpetrati nel nostro secolo.

Suona bene il violino. Nel romanzo viene ucciso un popolare conduttore radiofonico,Cyril Orchard, una specie di Bruno Vespa americano e durante l'indagine Nero Wolfe fa la conoscenza del docente di Matematica F.

O Savarese che era ospite della tragica trasmissione. La genesi normale della distribuzione Fabbriche, fornitori di servizi, venditori all'ingrosso e al dettaglio Ecco il prodotto che fa per voi. Il sistema assoluto per il consolidamento e la gestione dei registri criminali e pubblici immagazzinati in database internazionali, federali, statali e locali. E l'assassino sa davvero tutto grazie all'ausilio di questa tecnologia che permette di superare ogni barriera di privacy:. Pensavano che non mi sarei insospettivo?

A questo punto loro sanno dell'analisi predittiva basata sul comportamento precedente di consumatori. Questo concetto fa parte della mia vita da molto, molto tempo. Dovrebbe far parte della vita di tutti. E come, se fai l'azione Y?

E come se invece stai zitto e cerchi qualcosa in tasca? Ho studiato le transazioni dei poliziotti dal momento in cui hanno iniziato ad interessarsi a me. Li ho selezionati, analizzati.

Ed oggi basta una mappa interattiva per capire dove sta per verificarsi un reato. Jeffrey Brantingham, e George Mohler dell'Ucla, sono riusciti a creare un software in grado di anticipare i crimini prima ancora che vengano commessi. Mike Barton, dell'Associazione britannica dei capi di polizia. Nessuna magia, solo tecnologia. Mezzo secolo fa, Philip K. IBM ha, infatti, deciso d'investire con decisione sulla ricerca nell'ambito dei sistemi di sicurezza: L'investimento di quasi 10 miliardi di euro sostenuto da IBM per finanziare il progetto sembra davvero cospicuo, ma i primi risultati sono molto incoraggianti e, soprattutto, di mezzo non ci sono strani paragnosti di dubbie origini come nel celebre racconto: E per combattere i - pochi - crimini che non potranno essere evitati?

Purtroppo dovremo pazientare ancora parecchio prima di vedere all'opera un programma che tragga ispirazione dai romanzi di Sir Arthur Conan Doyle I giornalisti di tutto il mondo, invece, hanno sottolineato come lo scenario prefigurato richiami quello distopico, narrato dal visionario Philip K. Dick nel suo racconto Rapporto di Minoranza ! Da questo punto di vista non sembra del tutto ingiustificato il commento di Mark Cleverley, capo delle strategie per il Governo alla Big Blue - sia pure largamente pro domo sua: Ma ricordiamoci che la creazione letteraria in ebraico resta ferma per secoli.

Sono i momenti della prosa alta di Bialik, Brenner, Agnon ma anche di tanti altri, tutti ispirazione sionista, sociale, mistica, amanti della grande letteratura europea, ma non della prosa da intrattenimento.

Ma anche qui si sviluppa uno strano atteggiamento: Ha ragione Mishani, telavivino, editor e professore di letteratura? E lei una gran donna. Sempre in quegli anni e per quella generazione ci furono i thriller di Shulamit Lapid: Non li abbiamo letti.

Ben Gurion, primo ministro fondatore dello Stato d' Israele, una volta disse: Ecco, davvero qualcosa sta cambiando dall' indomani della Guerra d' Indipendenza, quando i gialli venivano guardati dal popolo del Libro, come un genere di seconda classe, indegno.

Tutto parte da uno stupro notturno in un quartiere bene di Tel Aviv. Sembrano non esserci testimoni, anche se noi sappiamo che una vecchietta da una finestra ha visto tutto ma ha scelto di tenersene fuori. Il commissario Eli Nahum brancola nel buio.

Salta fuori il presunto colpevole, Ziv Nevo, un giovane uomo un tempo di successo ma ora disoccupato e divorziato, disperato, che si aggira nella stessa via del delitto con fare sospetto: Shoham ha scritto un buon thriller. Questi romanzi li hanno scritti autori subalterni, ma alcuni sono stati scritti da autori eccellenti come Dickens, Stevenson e, soprattutto Wilkie Collins.

Io direi, in difesa del romanzo poliziesco, che non ha bisogno di difese; letto con un certo disdegno, ora sta salvando l'ordine in un mondo di disordine.

Di solito il bambino vuole sentire la stessa fiaba diverse volte proprio per trovare una conferma agli snodi che riconosce importanti e consolatori della fiaba.

Chi conosce le storie di Rex Stout sa che questi particolari esauriscono appena in superficie il repertorio dei topoi, dei luoghi fissi e ricorrenti che animano queste vicende.

Si potrebbe continuare all'infinito: Ciononostante le variazioni sul tema sono infinite, ogni delitto ha nuove motivazioni psicologiche e economiche, ogni volta l'autore escogita una situazione apparentemente nuova. I punti-forza del racconto non sono affatto quelli in cui sta accadendo qualcosa di inaspettato; quelli sono i punti pretesto.

E poi disse al vecchio con voce sognante "Mi piaccion le fiabe, raccontane altre". Si professano curiosi in materia di omicidio, amatori e dilettanti nei vari tipi di carneficina e, in breve, appassionati di assassinii. Pratica e teoria devono avanzare pari passu.

Trama, signori, allestimento, luce e ombra, poesia, sentimento, sono ora considerati indispensabili a prove di questa natura. Prima di iniziare, permettetemi di dire una o due parole a certi moralisti, che amano parlare della nostra associazione come se questa avesse tendenze in qualche misura immorali.

Ogni cosa, a questo mondo, ha due aspetti. Poi, nel meraviglioso Poscritto, scatena la sua furia: Macbeth ha dimenticato di essere nato di donna: Con occhi allucinati, De Quincey contempla l' irruzione del Male Assoluto sulla scena del mondo.

Sebeok raccoglie diversi contributi che esplorano con rigore e passione il momento topico di ogni indagine poliziesca, l'intuizione che porta alla soluzione del mistero.

Eco, con questo saggio vuole portarlo al livello che gli spetta e lo mette in relazione diretta alla filosofia peirceiana. Vedo poi che tenete un foglio di francobolli e un bel pacco di cartoline postali nella vostra scrivania aperta.

E cosa sareste andato a fare in un ufficio postale se non a spedire un telegramma? Tutte le ferite gravi da coltello producono emorragia Caso: Questa era una ferita grave da coltello Risultato: Questa era una ferita grave da coltello Caso: Si ebbe emorragia Risultato: Tutte le ferite gravi da coltello producono emorragia. Questa era una ferita grave da coltello. L'abduzione si fonda su un fatto singolo, che talora si presenta enigmatico, inspiegabile: Il capocaccia e tutti gli altri ufficiali gli correvano dietro con altrettanta inquietudine del primo eunuco alla ricerca della cagna.

Era appena stata pronunciata la sentenza che furono ritrovati il cavallo e la cagna. Passeggiavo nei pressi di un boschetto dove ho poi incontrato il venerabile eunuco e l'illustrissimo capocaccia. Ho visto sulla sabbia le tracce di un animale, e ho giudicato facilmente che si trattava delle tracce di un piccolo cane.

Dei solchi leggeri e lunghi, impressi sopra piccoli mucchi di sabbia, tra le tracce delle zampe, mi hanno fatto capire che si trattava di una cagna le cui mammelle erano pendule e che pertanto aveva avuto dei piccoli pochi giorni prima. Ho giudicato infine dai segni che i suoi ferri hanno lasciato su alcuni sassi di un'altra specie, che era ferrato in argento della purezza di undici denari.

Io sono Remigio da Varagine, il cellario del monastero. Credo anche che Guglielmo rallentasse il passo alla sua cavalcatura per permettere loro di raccontare quanto era accaduto. Alano delle Isole diceva che omnis mundi creatura quasi liber et pictura nobis est in speculum e pensava alla inesausta riserva di simboli con cui Dio, attraverso le sue creature, ci parla della vita eterna. Quasi mi vergogno a ripeterti quel che dovresti sapere.

Al trivio, sulla neve ancora fresca, si disegnavano con molta chiarezza le impronte degli zoccoli di un cavallo, che puntavano verso il sentiero alla nostra sinistra. Questo fatto spiega spesso come mai il detective che dice di avere la soluzione in mano, traccheggia e tira in lungo prima di svelare il mistero.

Holmes viene convocato nel luogo del delitto da una lettera di Gregson, un investigatore di Scotland Yard. La carreggiata della carrozza corrisponde a quella delle tipiche vetture pubbliche e le impronte lasciate dal cavallo lasciano intendere che sia rimasto a lungo incustodito.

Cercando altre tracce Holmes trova due serie di impronte di scarpe, una di scarpe con la punta quadrata e l'altra di scarpe eleganti. Quando Sherlock Holmes incontra Lestrade, il secondo ispettore di polizia, gli chiede se qualcuno sia giunto in casa quella mattina e riceve una risposta negativa, confermando la sua ipotesi che la carrozza sia arrivata di notte con l'assassino. In questo modo Holmes da dati slegati tra di loro e che potrebbero portare a tante ipotesi riesce a creare un'abduzione vincente.

Si comincia sena accorgersene ad adattare i fatti alla teoria, invece che le teorie ai fatti. La valle della paura. In libreria per Garzanti l'ottavo romanzo dell'investigatore privato genovese creato da Bruno Morchio.

Chi vuol fermare il candidato senatore? Molti, a Genova e non solo hanno respirato con sollievo: L'ultima fatica del suo creatore ha per titolo "Lo spaventapasseri Garzanti, pagine, 16,60 euro. E lui fa ormai parte del buon gruppo di investigatori pubblici o privati locali: A Bacci Pagano le armi piaccio poco e nulla, le indossa senza entusiasmo, corredo tecnico si direbbe: Preso, processato e condannato. Questo a Bacci che pure ha radici profonde nella sinistra operaia e partigiana da cui viene la sua famiglia interessa poco, esegue.

Gratuitamente, quale debito di riconoscenza. Ma un indizio tira l'altro, una passeggiata tra i vicoli, una parola di troppo e una di meno innescano un domino di ricordi, sensazioni, suggestioni. Bacci Pagano, investigatore privato uomo privato dei sentimenti: Maiuscola, astratta e assoluta.

Conquista nemici e allontana amici, in una storia di rancori, omissioni e con dentro un curioso amore. L'amore di uno spaventapasseri per una donna bionda e azzurra.

E a Bacci Pagano, interpretare la parte del burattino, con o senza fili no, non va. A costo di perdere clienti, amici e nemici, amore e amor proprio. Ma, almeno, libero tra le strade di casa, dove trovare ispirazione, conforto: In tutto questo si sta comunque parlando di un giallo intenso e permeabile. Una storia dal finale inatteso per chi non ha letto le puntate precedenti e coerente. Un finale che lascia, per forza di cose, aperta la porta alla prossima storia di Bacci.

Una volta scagionato completamente ha scritto con il giornalista Piero Colaprico la trilogia del maresciallo Binda. Una mattina di settembre, parte improvvisamente per Milano.

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The extent of the changeover is evident in some basic war production figures. The increase in tanks was not as dramatic— from in to 1, in —but the total jumped three and a half times to 4, in In naval construction, the Programme added ships of all types, though no capital ships, to the rapidly expanding inventory. Moreover, the number of individuals under arms increased from around half a million in to over 2. Wartime Britain had become a reality.

The government also responded in expected ways. Chamberlain established a War Cabinet, and it became the central institution for running both the military and the civilian sides of the conflict. Among the new ministries were Supply actually established in August, a month before the war , Shipping, Economic Warfare, Information, Home Security, and, most importantly for our purposes, Food.

In addition, a National Service component was officially added to the Labour ministry. Two results stand out. One, not only did the London-based administration of thirty departments employ thousands of personnel, but many of them had branches throughout the country that engaged many as volunteers thousands more. And two, one is struck by the interrelated nature of the effort. The number of interdepartmental committees came to total several hundred, and while they varied in importance, all of them were responsible directly or indirectly to the War Cabinet.

One example of how the departments were expected to relate to each other is the Food Policy Sub-Committee. It was to look after broader aspects of food policy, and while it conceived of its brief in narrow terms, Food Policy and similar committees were vital elements for overseeing the war economy. Despite its complexity, the committee system, with which the British government was so familiar in peacetime, was expected to play an even more crucial role in the wartime setting.

As with the other departments, officials in Agriculture and the new Food ministry had already prepared to organize themselves for war before it started. When it broke out the Agriculture ministry, headed by Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith, duly shifted its seventeen London-based divisions to wartime duties, though the size of its staff remained about the same at 3, They included a division for animal feed, another for tractors and implements, and a third for fertilizers and seeds.

The more than War Agricultural Executive Committees also sprang into action. They represented the Agriculture minister and were directly responsible to him. Assisting them were full-time paid staffs made up primarily of land agents, agriculture organizers, technical advisers, and university personnel.

Each county was further divided into four or more districts. They had their own local boards, and they had under them a number of Sub-Committees that functioned according to task, such as one for drainage, animal feed, cultivation, labour, and the like. Their duties were extensive and included the right to inspect farmland and buildings and to render technical advice. They also worked with farmers to determine the type and amount of crops and livestock they would produce, the fertilizer needed and the labour and machinery required.

While they did on occasion exercise this right in a high-handed manner and thus became owners in the process , this criticism has to be placed over against the rise in productivity that came about.

Nevertheless, one has to conclude that the committees should have acted with greater restraint, and their eviction practices mar an otherwise highly successful effort at the local level. In the Food ministry, which was under William Morrison, the changeover to wartime duties was equally rapid. The ministry further set up three internal committees—an Orders Committee to ensure compliance with regulations, an Overseas Purchasing Board to coordinate foreign food imports, and a Margins Committee to regulate the amount of profit allowed although the last was not established officially until April The only major organizational difference between Food and Agriculture was that while Agriculture had 3, personnel, Food had only That number for the Food ministry changed dramatically, however, during the early months of the war and reached 3, by March Also like Agriculture, Food had an extensive local organization.

Nineteen divisional officers were spread across the country, and they, in turn, had under them more than 1, local Food Control Committees. The local committees were especially concerned about sufficient food reaching the shops and rationing, though rationing did not begin until January Among the issues common to Food and Agriculture, none was more significant than price controls.

The government had already determined that on basic commodities, such as wheat, livestock, and milk, it would become the sole purchaser and would pay farmers a guaranteed price equal to that they received at the outbreak of the war. The subsidy was to ensure farmers reasonably high prices but at the same time prevent inordinate increases from being passed on to the consumer. The system did not work especially well at first.

The government set prices on the basis of 28 August, but the cost of imported food rose much faster than expected as did the cost of imported feeding stuffs, and this forced the Food ministry to raise its guaranteed price for some products several times in — It also ushered in the constant readjustment of food prices throughout the war.

In addition, price controls for the basic commodities were not instituted on all of them at once, but piecemeal because of a lack of staff in London. The result was that prices for some commodities, such as oats and barley, were not controlled as soon as they should have been. And finally, as discussed earlier, price controls for food could never be completely effective unless other aspects of the economy were also controlled, and comprehensive measures, including procedures for dealing with excess profits and wage adjustments, were introduced only gradually.

Not until the end of was the government getting a handle on controlling the entire economy. In the Agriculture ministry, its most important function was to bring about increased home production.

The programme actually had two parts, which the ministry for patriotic reasons called campaigns. When the war started Minister Dorman-Smith assumed the lead for the government to explain what the campaign entailed. The goal, he said, was to plough up at least 10 per cent of the pasture or idle land. In other words, he wanted to put approximately two million more acres into production for the harvest.

The ploughed-up land was to be sown with wheat or potatoes, or possibly oats, barley, beans, peas, rye, or maize. He also assured livestock farmers that they would have sufficient animal feed. The Minister went on to state that the government was doing its best to see that farmers received necessary supplies.

For the present they should rely on their usual merchants. His final point was to tell labourers to continue working the land, the implication being that their participation was essential as well. In this situation, he added, agricultural workers should also profit.

The average minimum weekly wage for labourers rose from 34s. But the wage level was still uneven, since it was being set locally by each county committee. In June the government took the issue in hand and raised the minimum to 48s. Dorman-Smith again took the lead in promoting it. The objective, he noted, was to provide citizens with half a million more allotments mainly in urban areas so that they could provide more of their own food, including potatoes, onions, carrots, and other vegetables.

The allotments were to come from a variety of sources, but primarily from local authorities, who were to be allowed to take possession of unoccupied land and to divide them into plots.

He also reminded his listeners that they might raise small animals, such as chickens and rabbits, for additional food.

Although annual figures are not available, Murray estimates that the number of allotments increased from , in to 1,, in , and that the amount of land used for allotments rose from 95, to , acres during the same period. Criticisms of the campaigns pale in comparison. Still, if the goal was more home-produced food, that goal was met in all parts of the United Kingdom. On the other hand, governmental subsidies to agriculture continued to increase, and this trend continued in the post-war years.

At the same time, milk was also emphasized, and this had a beneficial effect on school children and expectant mothers for whom it was soon made free of charge as well as for the rest of the population. Finally, though the government did not forget about livestock, especially beef, for morale purposes, the replacement of pasture with cropland reduced the amount of meat available to consumers.

The ploughing-up campaign and its ancillary, dig for victory, were accomplishing what the government, and the ministry, had hoped. Tied in with greater production was the second major concern of the ministry: As it turned out, the problem was not as insuperable as anticipated, and primarily for two reasons. A detailed study by F. To make up for the 92 that left, new workers were hired.

They included 55 from other farms, 24 from nonfarm occupations, 9 boys who had reached school leaving age, 8 Land Army girls, 7 casual workers, and 2 conscientious objectors. While Sturrock pointed out that the new workers were not as skilled as those who left, the gap had, none the less, been filled. But by the spring of , with the labour market becoming tighter, farmers became more receptive, and by the end of the year 6, were working in rural areas. It reached a peak of 87, in Many of them were from the cities, and they had to be at least seventeen to join.

They were given uniforms consisting of a green sweater, brown breeches, high boots, and a brown felt hat; underwent four weeks of training; and then were to sent individual farms or lived under supervision in hostels. They often worked eleven-hour days and were to have a half-day and Sundays off, but that was often not possible because of the nature of their jobs. They did all kinds of work, but most often were used to milk cows. Some of them eventually even became tractor drivers.

They were paid around 25s. Shirley Joseph has written movingly about her experiences. She recalls being interviewed—among the questions asked, did she realize cows had to be milked every day? Her first job was at Warborough Farm, where she worked from 6. On Wednesdays she received a half-day off, and she often used the time to hitch-hike to her home nearby. Her accommodation for part of the time was a cottage with no electricity or running water.

Later, she worked out of hostels at Shrivenham, Bramley, and Faringdon. Though allowed to do some milking, her main jobs were threshing and hoeing crops, which she describes as dirty, hard work. She remembers the hard bunks, queuing for meals, the total lack of privacy, the boyfriends some of them Americans , the long hours of work. Her experiences were probably typical of the , who served. Denman was also able to enlist influential patrons. Dorman-Smith had tried to sell the idea to the cabinet, but was turned down.

He did not give up, however, and talked Chamberlain and Simon, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, into placing an order with Fordson, the only firm capable of supply tractors in sufficient numbers. The process generally worked as follows: Other farmers bought their own.

Despite the rationing of petrol, farmers were not restricted from using it for their machinery. As a result, tractors became a common sight in the rural landscape.

In the number in use was 56,; by , it had climbed to , Added to this was a substantial increase in disc harrows, cultivators, binders, combines, and milk machines, some of which were also controlled by the committees. The tasks of the Food ministry were more inclusive than those undertaken by Agriculture, for the former was to handle all aspects of food control except for home production.

This division of responsibilities, however, still did not preclude the two ministries from dealing with a number of common issues; nor did it put an end to the interdependency with other departments. In fact, interdependency was greater during the war than before it. It is difficult to treat all of the issues the Food ministry faced, let alone to determine how well it carried through on them during the first eleven months of the war.

Nevertheless, six were most important. The first to be discussed is the food import programme. Taking it over entailed a number of tasks: Even more uncertain was coping with the vagaries of the war. Would the trade routes remain open?

And how would the war affect imports from the Continent? Despite the uncertainties, the ministry obviously had no option but to forge ahead. It further established a licensing system for individual products though not all to differentiate between those Britain wanted and those it wanted to restrict or to prevent from reaching the enemy. Also in the background was the fact that the government hoped to use the system to ease the foreign exchange problem.

While instituting these measures helped, numerous problems still ensued. The government had overestimated the amount of merchant shipping it would have at its disposal and underestimated the non-combat disruptions the war would cause, even though before the war officials had estimated possible reductions in food imports of around 25 per cent.

At first, because of the legacy of pre-war patterns, the anticipated difficulties seemed not to materialize, but it soon became apparent there were shortages, especially in wheat, and that the reserve was being used up. Moreover, the Food and Supply ministries were competing for cargo space, and so that problem had to be reconciled. Finally, the shortages meant that the ministry had to choose which products it would import.

It had already decided to emphasize grain for human consumption, and not for animals, but it had to import enough feed so as not to deplete the dairy herds inordinately. The decrease in feeding stuffs did not have much of an effect on imported meat, at least at this point, for refrigerator ships were not in short supply. But, in the long run, the stress on grain products rather than on meat did, as stated before, have a considerable effect on the British diet.

By November trade in food imports was down to about two-thirds of normal, and shortages in some areas had become severe.

But emergency shipments of wheat from Canada and a better familiarity with the procedures on the part of all the countries involved eased the situation by March Even the Norwegian campaign and the Battle of France in the spring did not interrupt the flow of goods for the time being.

Despite a shaky start, the food import programme was now on a solid foundation. This solid foundation made it possible for the ministry to handle the drastic cuts that would be required in the future. Some of them, such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, remained staunch trading partners as well as joining the British cause.

Others, like Argentina, drove a hard bargain for its beef, wheat, and maize, but decided to continue its trading relationship with the British.

Two exceedingly important countries from a trade and a military standpoint were France and the United States. Throughout the British had been establishing closer trade links with the French, and when the war broke out the two allies set up an elaborate machinery for inter-country sharing and for joint purchases abroad.

It was headed by Jean Monnet, later the foremost proponent of post-war European cooperation. The coordinating committee had under it nine committees, one of which was food. The main food committee also spawned a number of Sub-Committees, including ones for cereals, oilseeds and fats, and meat. To get an idea of the subjects discussed, a look at some of the decisions the committee made at its 12 February meeting is instructive.

Besides joint purchases, the French offered to sell oil cakes to Britain and to arrange for a shipment of salt from Djibuti to British East Africa. Britain, for its part, agreed to sell some of its Newfoundland cod and salted herring to the French.

An example of pre-emptive buying was their decision jointly to purchase dried fruits from Turkey so as to prevent them from ending up in German hands. The motive was not so much that Britain and France needed the fruit as it was to help influence Turkey not to join the enemy side.

The horse-trading at the February meeting thus served a number of purposes, and both French and British representatives regretted the dissolution of their coordinating machinery on 4 July To be sure, both nations wanted increased trade, but it was always complicated during —40 by American neutrality and British foreign exchange problems.

In fact, early on Britain said it was interested in purchasing basic food products, but suggested paying for them with British goods, such as wool from Australia, rather than with hard currency.

Nevertheless, Britain streamlined its trade links with North America, first by agreeing with Canada in August to set up a purchasing commission in Ottawa, and then in November extending it to New York City for American goods. Although both of these bodies were different from the version, they still owed their genesis to the purchasing commission. Despite the complications, each nation kept the other apprised of its thinking.

The increases and decreases also related to food products. US officials were well aware that the value of British imports in that area was diminishing, and they predicted it could well decrease by as much as 50 per cent of normal.

Britain had virtually stopped buying fresh fruits, lard, and grain, though it usually purchased little of the latter in any event.

Especially galling to American tobacco farmers had been the cut off of that product. The British had offset the effect of their actions to an extent by continuing to purchase canned fruit and by increasing cotton imports, but it still was far from enough to overcome the overall decrease.

Yet, they remained sensitive to American frustrations, and the Food ministry made a large purchase of maize—which Britain definitely needed—from the United States in the spring.

Therefore, the two countries might not always get along, but security interests continued to dictate that the two work out their differences in all areas, including the food trade. In retrospect, however, when one looks at the difficulties Britain faced in getting food imports from all of its trading partners during the early months of the war, they were minimal when compared with the difficulties the country was to experience in maintaining relations later on. Since the air war over Britain did not materialize, carrying out a second area of food control, distribution and storage, had pretty much gone according to plan.

Wheat, for example, was mainly unloaded in the west and south, and meat and sugar primarily through London and Liverpool. Port Emergency Committees handled the day-to-day operational problems. When the air raids did not take place, the government had the goods replaced. As for distribution inside the country, private hauliers and wholesalers were contracted to make sure goods reached retail outlets.

Although shortages at times did occur, as it did when meat was poorly distributed, it was seldom the fault of the transportation industry. The third area of concern, food supply, did not fare as well as the distribution system. At first the supply of basic food products seemed adequate, but by October and November shortages were appearing, especially in cereals, feeding stuffs, and sugar. At this point the difficulties could not be overcome by home production, and so, in the case of grain, the shipments of wheat from Canada helped ease that situation, and in the case of sugar, rationing, already widely anticipated, was the alternative selected.

Animal feed remained a difficult proposition, but the government soon began decreasing the amount imported and further cut its use by rationing meat. By March the initial food supply crisis had passed, but it was a foretaste of problems to come. What the departments had learned was that flexibility rather than rigid programmes was the preferred method for dealing with food supply emergencies. The fourth area with which the Food ministry concerned itself was evacuations from the major cities.

Like distribution activities, evacuations were primarily the responsibility of another department, in this instance the Ministry of Health, but Food was still involved. The evacuations had actually begun on 1 September, two days before the declaration of war, and within ten days 1,, persons, approximately half of whom were school children accompanied by their teachers and helpers, had been settled into mostly pre-arranged accommodation.

As emphasized before, London was not the only city to have large-scale evacuations. About 15, from Birmingham and Liverpool, for instance, went to Herefordshire, and others from Southampton to Glasgow were sent to less endangered areas. When the air raids did not occur, the pressure was off, and the evacuees started returning home, some on their own, others more systematically. By January two-thirds of them were once again living in their own dwellings.

From the beginning, the Food ministry took over this responsibility and established a Service Supply Branch to administer the programme. All parties well understood that the services were to have the highest priority for food, and depots were set up in the United Kingdom to distribute bulk supplies to stations at home and to an extent abroad. But for much of the food at overseas bases, the ministry coordinated but allowed the service ministries to continue using their own sources of supply, many of whom were foreign agents.

To ensure coordination the ministry had liaison officers assigned to work with the services, and it met with army, navy, and air force representatives to discuss common problems. Regarding provisions for troops beginning to arrive in France, it coordinated that effort with the Anglo-French machinery as well as with the services involved. This early spirit of cooperation obviously helped when the country had to cope with the dark days that lay ahead.

The final and by far most visible aspect of food control was rationing. The major problem with rationing was that even though every one expected it, it was slow in coming about. The Food ministry had already determined the system to be used—consumers registering with individual retailers—and the products to be immediately rationed—meat, sugar, bacon and ham, and butter, and possibly margarine, cooking fats, and tea—and this information was known by the public.

Not until 8 January was rationing introduced. In the meantime, the chorus of complaints multiplied. Alexander set forth the anti-government position. He pointed out that the national registration system, which was to form the basis for consumer registration, had been completed by the end of September and thus should no longer cause a problem.

He ended with a quote from the prominent retailer Alan J. On the 29th the government announced the rules for using the ration books that had already been distributed. They applied primarily to regular households, but the ministry also had special books for service personnel on leave; those needing extra rations, such as labourers doing heavy work; and for individuals whose work involved extensive travel.

Every adult was to receive three and a half ounces of bacon and ham when cooked per week, 4 ounces of butter, and 12 ounces of sugar. To get an idea of the detail involved, the ministry stipulated that homemakers would be allowed an extra ration of sugar to make marmalade and bee-keepers extra sugar for their colonies. Meat was rationed next, in March, and then margarine, cooking fats, and tea in July. Among the products not rationed were bread only as a last resort , potatoes, fish, and fresh vegetables, though they were still subject to price controls.

For morale purposes, tobacco and alcohol were also not rationed. In fact, one of the favourite refrains governmental officials used when talking to the public about food controls was to declare there would be no restrictions on beer. The instituting of selective rationing did not end all of the criticisms. People continued to complain—the sugar ration was insufficient, the price for butter too high—but for the most part it was fair. Moreover, from time to time, the ministry made additional changes to improve the programme.

The most notable was the introduction of a point system to supplement registration with retailers. With the new programme, the buyer was given points, and he or she was then allowed to use them to purchase goods of their choice from a limited, but non-rationed, list.

This innovation, too, was considered a success. Overall, then, despite a belated start, the ministry and local officers did a commendable job administering the rationing system, in part because officials had done extensive planning before it was implemented, in part because it entailed the type of detailed work in which administrators often excel.

To keep the multitude of factors straight, the government relied on two previously mentioned bodies, the Food Policy Sub-Committee and a joint Food and Agriculture committee with the awkward title of the Interdepartmental Committee on the Coordination of Food Policy. The Food Policy Sub-Committee was the more broadly based of the two, and it was established in late November The Sub-Committee had an additional pre-war cast to it in that it included numerous Treasury officials.

But even though the Sub-Committee did discuss these issues and received advice from other councils and groups, such as one made up of agricultural economists, it never went beyond dealing with immediate problems rather than establishing a long-range policy. At first, the main problems were rationing and the food supply. But the lack of a long-range policy, along with a lack of coordination, led to criticisms from both traders and consumers, and Chamberlain thus decided in late March to replace Food minister Morrison with a businessman, Lord Woolton.

One of the things that happened soon afterward was a change in the name of the Sub-Committee to the Food Policy Committee, and Woolton insisted that it frame a longrange statement. Churchill retained the highly regarded Woolton, and he was no doubt pleased to have an appropriate statement on his desk by late July.

Therefore, the problem of not having a long-range food policy statement had finally been solved. The joint Food and Agriculture committee had been the pre-war brainchild of French and Fergusson. To accomplish this objective the government needed to see that the farmer came out well financially but within reasonable limits. At other times its members addressed more practical matters, such as how to increase immediately the supply of oats and other feedstuffs from abroad.

But whether theoretical or practical the two permanent secretaries were attempting to benefit farmers by achieving a proper balance between prices and production in a wartime setting. How well then did the government and its ministries do in getting their food programme accepted? The answer is that, on the whole, the public reaction, and that of rural interests in particular, was favourable.

They seemed to accept that sacrifice and change were the order of the day. Many of the agricultural lobby groups, for example, changed locations although most retained offices in London , and they met less frequently and disbanded some of their committees and converted others to wartime matters.

In addition, they cut down on the number of pages in their journals as did the national and local newspapers. Yet, despite their loyalty and willingness to support the government, criticisms of its programme surfaced in various quarters—from parliament, the press and farmer weeklies to the activities and publications of lobby groups that had a keen interest in rural affairs.

As in the past, parliament is a good place to start, for the views of its members are a fairly good barometer of how people felt about the food measures being put into effect.

De la Bère included this latter phrase as a reminder of what the government had failed to do for farmers after the first war. On 2 April the Commons again devoted an entire session to food problems. The Times discussed many of the same issues—prices, rationing, food supplies—that were addressed in parliament, but the paper better reflected individual concerns. Dunn of Campden criticized the army for using inexperienced cooks, and the result, in his opinion, was wasted food.

Among the regional papers, with their local emphasis, the Hereford Times listed the eight members of the county war agricultural committee and reminded readers that two of them had served in the same capacity in World War I. It suggested postponing the call up of agriculture-related workers, a solution the government had utilized the year before. Not only would such a practice provide food, but it would also require less labour. Like other local papers, to save space, the Aberdeen Press and Journal decreased the number of classified advertisements and moved news articles to the front page.

Despite the overstatement, the war had not stopped the local press from keeping their readers informed. One area in which the weeklies were especially critical was the apparent lack of concern for farmers being exhibited by the Ministry of Food.

They were getting along with the Agriculture ministry, but according to the article, what Food officials needed to do was to take farmers into their confidence. The government was listening. By December the farmers were getting results. The government agreed to increase the price guarantee for wheat and promised to look into increasing livestock prices as well.

Still, NFU officials were not satisfied, in part because of continuing pressure from its branches, and the NFU insisted that the government raise prices even further. Besides being the premier agricultural lobby, the NFU had tailored its operations to wartime needs by moving its headquarters to High Wycombe, setting up an Emergency Committee to deal with urgent matters between regular Council meetings, and having officials serve on governmental committees.

For example, even though it did not like the Food ministry, it met with French and others on occasion, because, after all, Food was responsible for setting prices. Furthermore, the NFU was revising its opinion of the worker unions, and it sympathized to an extent with their desire for higher wages. Finally, the NFU continued its pre-war practice of meeting regularly with its counterparts in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

As might be expected, the Scottish NFU was especially interested in prices for oats, barley, sheep, and cattle, and the Ulster Union was likewise for cattle.

Another special concern of the Northern Ireland group was to make sure its members received the same prices for products as the rest of the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, they remained difficult to deal with. In the opinion of the CLA, this should be a matter to be settled directly between employers and employees, not by the government. These joint get-togethers continued under the Churchill government. They also undertook war measures so that they could continue to conduct business.

Moreover, they were glad to receive increased recognition. Many union members served on War Ag committees and other local entities, and when Edwin Gooch and George Dallas, the heads of the unions, complained in September about the government not meeting with them, the Agriculture minister responded by setting up regular meetings.

In February union representatives further started meeting with Food ministry subcommittees. An indication of their increased status can be derived from a dinner of the NUAW at its biennial conference on 3 May At a December meeting Agriculture secretary Fergusson agreed with the unions to seek a Central Wages Board, and, failing that, at least to enable a Central Board to revise the wages set by the county committees. The government, however, accepted a Central Wages Board, and during the negotiations the workers on the board proposed a 60s.

The farmers on the board recommended 42s. The workers moved the figure back to 55s. They finally agreed to 48s. Adult women were to receive a 35s. Even though neither side was completely happy—the union still wanted more for overtime work—it was a rise of approximately 8s. Their activities included helping care for the evacuees; producing more garden vegetables, fruits, poultry and other small animals, and eggs; promoting and demonstrating methods of food preservation; disseminating information through pamphlets, circulars, and radio broadcasts; and keeping up morale in the villages and the countryside.

As for keeping up morale, T. Bray of the Shere and Gomshall WI, perhaps put it best. The other lobbies seem to have reacted similarly to the major groups. Thus, by the spring of the food programme was functioning, not without difficulties at first and not without criticisms, but, on the whole, smoothly.

Still one element was missing, and that was a governmental statement on its long-term food policy, and especially as to how that policy would relate to nutrition. Two events resolved the problem. One was a reshuffling of the cabinet by Chamberlain on 3 April But two of them that were not shuffled related to food and agriculture. One was the appointment of Robert S. The other was naming Lord Woolton as Food minister in place of Morrison, who was shifted to the less taxing Postmaster General position.

Woolton — turned out to be a superior appointment. At the outbreak of the war he was attached to the Ministry of Supply and was directing the procurement of army clothing and textile equipment when Chamberlain asked him in March to take over as Minister of Food. Woolton recalled his first meeting with the Prime Minister as follows. The Prime Minister asked him to become Food minister. Woolton replied that he would rather not and suggested Colonel J. Llewellin, the permanent secretary in the Ministry of Supply, as an excellent choice, since as an MP he had a better grasp of politics.

He in fact succeeded Woolton in November Woolton also said he knew little about food matters. Woolton said he would think about the offer. I knew I was right! He had been selected primarily because he would bring a business mentality to the ministry and hopefully would gain the confidence of the food industry. He further gave businessmen more authority within the ministry and named several of them to head departments. But he also overcame the suspicions of the civil servants by meeting with them, visiting every office, and talking with them face to face about their problems.

But with the assistance of his parliamentary secretaries, and after meetings with members of both Houses—at which he acknowledged their right to criticize but also his desire to move ahead for the good of the nation—he experienced few difficulties with them.

Part of his success with parliament can also be explained by another factor: The second event of great importance was much more than a reshuffle; it was the resignation of the Chamberlain government on the evening of 10 May and its replacement with one headed by Winston Churchill.

This event, of course, was of profound significance, and it has been examined in great detail elsewhere. Regarding Food, the change was not so great, because Woolton was retained.

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